Jacque Nyenhuis PhD RD LDN

Assistant Professor of Medicine/Culinary Nutrition
University of Central Florida
Orlando, FL 32827

PHONE: (906)399-1477


PhD Educational Foundations and Research
North Dakota State University, Grand Forks ND
Dissertation: Political Ideology, Beliefs and Values as a Framework for Analysis of School Nutrition Preferences
MS Food and Nutrition, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge LA
Exercise Physiology – Minor
BS Food Science, Iowa State University, Ames IA


RDN Registered Dietitian/Nutritionist
Commission on Dietetic Registration, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (RDN 712624)
LDN Licensed Dietitian/Nutritionist, State of Florida and Alabama (LDN ND7788)
Sloan C Consortium certificate for online curriculum and course development
CDE Certified Diabetes Educator, ex. 2015
YMCA Fitness Specialist


Assistant Professor of Medicine   2/2018-current position
           Department of Internal Medicine
University of Central Florida College of Medicine
Joint appointment with UCF Rosen College of Hospitality and Management
Orlando FL. 
Clinical Instructor: Nutrition and Dietetics, UND Grand Forks ND 2015
Assistant Professor
: Nutrition and Dietetics, St Catherine University 2011-2014
Curriculum Development Team for Interprofessional Education (IPE) 2013-2014
Adjunct faculty: Nutrition and Diet Therapy, Department of Nursing, Sheridan College, WY 1996
Adjunct faculty: Health and Fitness, Nursing and Allied Health, Bay College, Escanaba, MI 2009-2010
Instructor: Food and Nutrition, Louisiana State University 1985-1986


Cataldo, C., Nyenhuis, J., & Whitney, E. (1989). Nutrition and Diet Therapy, 2nd Ed. .West Publishing Co., St. Paul, MN.704 pages.


Stutte, G., and Nyenhuis, J., (2021) Plant-based foods as primary line of defense against diseases. In Integrative Health in Clinical Practice. Ed. Blujus dos Santos Rohde, C., & Ricardo             Ghelman,  M. Monroe Publishing Co.


Paris, France 2020 Culinary medicine skills help rural families address the double burden of food insecurity and obesity while building connectedness and societal relationships around the table. Conference Canceled.

Sydney, Australia 2019. How rural families address the double burden of food insecurity and obesity. Invited  presentation at the University of Newcastle, Australia. (Presentation canceled).

Rome, Italy 2015 Analyzing uptake of micro-nutrients by micro-greens.

Malawi, Africa 2006. Nutrition and Health Educator, Preceptor for students from 5 universities

Provided health education for villagers. Invited to give HIV/AIDS education to local women. Taught basic nutrition, food and safety classes

Broadcast Cooking Class on Russian Radio, Unakleet AK 2005

            Produced and broadcast nutrition education



Nyenhuis, J., Feltman, R.B., and Meyers, J.,  (2020). Unwinding the paradox of food insecurity and obesity in the same household in rural populations. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Annual Conference 2020.

Nyenhuis, J., (2020) Culinary Medicine Sessions for Health and Wellbeing (CulMedSHAW) use cooking classes as an empowering, sustainable way for families to move toward increased wellbeing. International Home Economics Federation (IHEF) 2020. Atlanta, GA.(cancelled)

Nyenhuis, J. (2020) Rural families address the double burden of food insecurity and obesity while building connectedness and societal relationships around the table. Keynote speaker at Global Conference on Obesity 2020, Paris, France. (Conference canceled).

McCoy, D., Sharma, N., Wasserstrom, S., Suryanarayanan, S., Nyenhuis, J., (2020) Diabetic patients transition to a plant-based diet with 8 weeks of nutrition education, culinary medicine and individualized diet therapy. UCF College of Medicine FIRE conference.

Sharma, N., McCoy, D., Wasserstrom, S., Suryanarayanan, S., Nyenhuis, J., (2020) Efficacy of a Plant Based Diet Program for Diabetic Patients. UCF College of Medicine FIRE conference.

Wright, J and Nyenhuis, J. (2020) A descriptive study of online culinary medicine session on dietary goals.  UCF College of Medicine FIRE conference.

Brush, N. and Nyenhuis, J., (2020) Comparison of online culinary medicine sessions and face-to-face instruction. UCF College of Medicine FIRE conference.

Feldman, M. and Nyenhuis, J., (2020) Literature review of sourdough bread products and celiac sprue patients. UCF College of Medicine FIRE conference.

Nyenhuis, J., (2019) How rural families address the double burden of food insecurity and obesity. Invited  presentation at the Nutrition Society of Australia. Sydney, Australia. (Presentation canceled).

Nyenhuis, J., (2019) A qualitative study on the impact of informal culinary nutrition education on societal relationships, connectedness and food choices in rural home kitchens in seven states. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 119:A140.

Seltzer, R., and Nyenhuis, J. (2019) Culinary Medicine: Cooking Up New Relationships between Chefs and Registered Dietitians. American Culinary Federation National Conference, Orlando, Fl.

Nyenhuis, J., Karch, R., Layman, M., and Seltzer, R. (2019) Culinary Medicine: The Future is Now. Florida Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Annual Symposium, Orlando Fl.


NASA-Cape Canaveral FL

Health and Wellness Day

230 Scientists, Researchers

The focus of this panel was plant-based diets as opposed to vegan diets. I was invited to participate on a panel about plant-based diets with Dr George Guthrie author of “Eat Plants, Feel Whole” and the Chief Medical Researcher and the producer of  the movie “The Game Changer”.


VA Domiciliary Residents

Class for students to teach Patients

25 VA Domiciliary residents


The VA has assisted living units where residents gain skills for reintroduction into society.  I mentored UCF MED students on nutrition education teaching techniques for this population. The presentations were student-led and the focus was on teaching and interacting with individuals at different levels of nutrition knowledge. The goals included opening a dialog with patients on obesity and better health.




Diabetes Research Institute

Nutrition Education for Diabetics

14 diabetics and family members


The diabetes Research Institute regularly holds classes for diabetics in their teaching kitchen. Our students were invited to share one-on-one nutrition education with a focus on healthy carbohydrates and how to prepare them. I was a preceptor for the students in this setting.




Second Harvest Family Healthy Cooking

Student Led Nutrition Education

19 Parents and their children

Preceptor for Students  to provide nutrition education


Second Harvest is a food bank for central Florida and the surrounding underserved population. UCF COM students worked one-on-one with families, sharing nutrition education. An interpreter was present for the families who did not speak English.





Healthy Teaching Kitchen

Cancer Patients at Advent Health Teaching Kitchen

16 Cancer Patients


Advent Health Teaching Kitchen invited the culinary medicine class of 12 UCF COM students to give patient teaching on culinary medicine to their cancer support group.  I gave a presentation and then the students taught the patients on an individual basis and talked with each patient about their specific issues.



Food Bullying Podcast

Radio Broadcast

National Reach


I was invited to join this podcast after meeting the founder at AND Annual National meeting where I gave a presentation. The focus was to open a dialog to alleviate the pressure for the general population as well as nutrition professionals. It is so easy to fall prey to forceful media misinformation the general population repeats and forces those ideas on others regarding food and nutrition issues.



Prime Education Series

Invited and Paid Presentation

100 Community


Healthy aging was a symposium in Central and Eastern Florida where I was invited to give a culinary medicine presentation on nutrition. I often speak on “Beyond the fads of plant-based and keto diets”.



PATH (Faith Based Residency Rescue Shelter)


250 Community members over several months


This was a bi-monthly class on Monday nights which I taught for several years. I was invited to share culinary sessions where I would demonstrate recipes with the transitional population. Most were transitioning into society from prison or drug rehab. The men and women would help cook the food grown in the rescue mission’s fields, learning new ways of preparing produce and whole grains. We all sat down after the preparation and shared the meal family style.




Knightly News


Listeners in Central Florida


Student run campus new station wanted to interview me on issues of nutrition for students on campus. The focus was on how much fast food is too much.




UCF College of Medicine Library Lunch & Learn


30 UCF COM Faculty and Staff


I was invited to give a presentation and I turned it into a panel event. I interviewed 3 UCF COM faculty and staff about culinary medicine and its impact. We open a window for a dialog on practical cooking ideas to move towards a healthier lifestyle. All of the panel members prepared food to share and talked about the recipe and how they modified it.




Mission Nutrition

Student Interest Group at UCF COM


I was invited by students to be a faculty mentor for this group and was instrumental in organizing a symposium where students could share nutrition education with fellow medical students.




American Medical Society of Women in Medicine (Student Chapter)

75 Students


Students organized and invited me to speak at a noon event. I dreamed up an event where students would compete in a culinary nutrition event. We brought over 40 different types of raw produce, cooked grains, proteins and ingredients for salad dressings for the students to compete in preparing their lunch. Celebrity judges gave out awards and prizes (insta-pot, cookbooks etc)  for healthiest lunch prepared, most beautiful plate, most innovative plate and  over-all best.




Winter Garden Farmers Market

Stage Presentation

1000 to 1500 Community members


I was invited to give 4 presentations throughout a 1 day farmer’s market. I invited any medical students from UCF COM to come assist. The students lead a children’s presentation where the children were able to make and take home a planted egg shell garden. The students gave out hundreds of samples of the recipes I shared in the presentations and answered questions about nutrition and health with the farmer’s market customers.



Garden Wellness Presentation

Culinary Nutrition Hands on Demonstration

Students, faculty and staff


We wrote a grant to build a garden on campus. I was invited to give a noon presentation at the garden. We used herbs from the garden and provided bottles and ingredients to share with the audience how to create their own salad dressings. We also provided salad greens and other salad ingredients for participants to prepare their own lunch.



UCF COM Student Interest Group (SIG)

Panel/Presentation/Student lead

48 M1, M2 students


The UCF COM student interest group called “Mission Nutrition” is an effort to raise awareness and have a more constructive conversation about nutrition in medicine. I was invited to moderate a panel of students who shared their experiences and expertise in nutritious food preparation for Med Students.


External Grants Pending:

Florida Space Grant. Collaboration with Synergy (US company) Growponics (Israeli company) 4 Roots Foundation (US based non-profit) UCF-College of Medicine. (Co-I)$1,000,000.



External Grants Awarded:

Martin Andersen–Gracia Andersen Clinical Nutrition Education and Research Fund Foundation Grant. 2/2018 ($1,000,000)  (Co-PI)


Florida Blue Culinary Medicine Grant. 2/2020 ($25,000) (Co-PI)


Martin Andersen–Gracia Andersen Clinical Nutrition Education and Research Fund Foundation Grant. 2/2019 ($20,000,)  (PI)


Florida Consortium Academic Conference Travel Grant, 7/2019 ($2500) (PI).


Beef Council Check-Off Program Culinary Medicine Grant 2/2019 ($25,000) (Co-PI)



Internal Grants Awarded:

UCF College of Medicine, Internal Medicine Inter-departmental Internal Award Program Grant:  Online Learning and Perception of Course Material Relevance in Culinary Medicine: A comparative Analysis of Differences of Online and Traditional Teaching Methods. $20,000. 8/20 (PI)


UCF College of Medicine, Clinical Sciences Inter-departmental Internal Award Program Grant:  A Community Garden to Promote Improved Wellness and Nutrition.  $10,000 6/18 (Co PI)




Grant Proposals Not Funded:


Saleh Rahman (PI), Jacque Nyenhuis (Co-I) , Annette Khaled, Dexter Hadley, Robert Hines, Eric Schrimshaw. P20 Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) Collaborative Partnerships in Cancer Research $2,000,000


Improving nutrition, health, and wellness among at-risk children and families in Central Florida-Orlando Magic Youth Foundation, ($300,000 collaborative grant UCF College of Medicine/UCF Rosen College of Hospitality and Management proposal submitted 7/6/2018)(PI).


West Orange Healthcare District Foundation Grant for developing culinary medicine program for the city of Winter Garden, FL. ($200,000). (PI)


Aetna Community Grant: Nutrition education focusing on healthy behaviors to address obesity. $100,000. (PI)










Fox TV 35, Culinary Nutrition; Taking on the Challenge of Produce in Minutes. Orlando, FL. 5/18

Cable TV Show; Cooking With Jacque. Baton Rouge, LA 83-85.

Weekly Health Guest on Local News Channel; Cooking With Jacque. Baton Rouge La 83-84.






Cause Matters Podcast, Food Bullying on Food and Agricultural issues 1/2020


NSM Today at UCF. Snacking for students has become the new meal pattern: Does it meet their nutritional requirements. 11/19


Fox News affiliate in Tampa. “How to turn a farm basket of produce into meals for a family”. 3/19

Chop Magazine, The Premier Pediatrics Publication for Healthcare Clinics, 3/19

Fox News affiliate in Orlando. Farm Produce to Table Gourmet in 20 Minutes. 5/18.

Knightly News, Junk Food and the Nation’s Obesity Epidemic. 10/18

Culinary nutrition session on WMFE radio, 5/18

House Method “Decoding Food Product Labels”.  9/18

COURSES TAUGHT AND/OR CURRICULUM DEVELOPED   *denotes curriculum developed

  • Culinary Medicine (MDE 8105 at UCF)
  • Supervised Practice for Community Nutrition Students (ND 498 at UND)
  • Interprofessional Education (INDI 2972 and INDI 2992)
  • Food Science (FSNU 2800)
  • Food Science Lab (FSNU – Lab)
  • Nutrition and Diet Therapy (taught at Sheridan College)
  • Introductory Nutrition (taught at LSU)
  • Fitness and Wellness (EXSS 1100 and taught at Bay College)
  • Sports Nutrition (FSNU 3250)
    Nutrition and Neurology (UCF-COM)*Nutrition for Immunology Patients  (UCF-COM)*Nutrition in Cardiology (UCF-COM)*Practice of Physician  (MOPS at UCF-COM)







Editorial Board Member:


            Journal of Nutrition Education and Health Sciences, 8/2012-present




          Medical Education Online, Taylor and Francis, 1/19-present



Assistant Professor of Medicine/Nutrition Clinical Educator
Joint Appointment with Rosen College of Hospitality and Management
UCF College of Medicine, Orlando FL (2018-present position)

• Provide medical students with experiential opportunities for nutrition assessment, interventions and goal setting during rotations through UCF Health Clinics
• Collaborate on consultations for nutrition related issues in the clinics
• Curriculum development for culinary medicine 4th year elective
• Curriculum development for culinary medicine in UCF Health Clinics
• Curriculum development for medical students using culinary medicine in the community
Across the Curriculum
• Teaching nutrition across the curriculum-i.e. nutrition module in: cardiology, immunology, neurology, hematology
• Support and develop special projects and modules in nutrition as they are revised or added
• Develop interprofessional (IPE) modules and special sessions
• Collaborate on class session-i.e. Culture, health and Nutrition
Community Nutrition Preceptor
• Faculty mentor for Student Interest Group (SIG) Mission Nutrition-presentations, lectures
• Develop programs and sites for students to instruct on nutrition and culinary medicine-i.e. health fairs, free clinics, migrant worker clinics, diabetes research institute, second harvest food bank, Orange County Public Schools and Veterans Administration Ancillary Residents
• Design and implement nutrition studies
• Write grants to fund nutrition and health related research and projects
• Develop research to evaluate efficacy of nutrition and clinical programs
Mentor for Medical Students
• Mentor first and second year medical students on research
• Recruit students for my research lab focusing on nutrition and culinary medicine
• Mentor third and fourth year students on research projects

Director of Dietary: 2016-2017
Citrus Memorial Hospital, Inverness Fl.
• Oversee day to day operations of dietary department
• Develop plan of care for in-patients
• Collaborate with physicians on consultations for nutrition related patient concerns
Graduate Research Scholar 2014-2016
University of North Dakota, Clinical Instructor of Nutrition and Dietetics, Grand Forks ND
• Researched efficacy of school nutrition interventions
• Taught Institutional Management
• Supervised practice for 4th year undergraduate dietetic students in community nutrition

Assistant Professor of Nutrition and Dietetics
St Catherine University, St Paul, MN 2011-2014
• Develop curriculum and teach nutrition courses
• Mentor dietetic students
• Develop curriculum and teach food science courses

Graduate Research Scholar
Michigan Technological University, Houghton MI 2010-2013
• Develop a line of research in clinical nutrition
• Teach classes on nutrition and sport psychology

Consultant/Researcher/Clinical Dietitian/Home Health Dietitian: 2003-2011
Marquette General Hospital, Marquette, MI.
Nutrition and Wellness, Diabetes Education Department; Home Health

Responsibilities: Counselor for dietary referrals in the areas of:
• Bariatric Surgical Center
• Mental Health for Pathways in Delta, Marquette and Algier Counties
• Outpatient Wellness and Nutrition Department
• Delta, Menomonee and Chippewa County Home Health
Developed and taught classes in the area of:
• Diabetes Education
• Sunshine Mental Health Foundation
Developed Nutrition Therapy Practice at
• Gladstone Medical Clinic
• MGH Mental Health Center in Escanaba

Adjunct Health and Fitness Instructor, Bay College, Escanaba, MI (2009-2010)
Radio Talk Show Host on Health Issues, Escanaba, MI (2005-2010)
Registered Dietitian Consultant (1991-2011) at the following facilities:
• Christian Park Village, Escanaba, MI
• Christian Park Health Care Center, Escanaba, MI
• Veterans Home Of Wyoming, Buffalo, WY.
• Sheridan Nursing Home, Sheridan WY.
• Johnson County Health Care Center, Buffalo, WY (as Dietary Consultant and
Interim Dietary Manager)
• Vocational Rehabilitation for the State Of Wyoming, Sheridan, WY
Adjunct Nutrition Instructor, Sheridan College, Sheridan, Wyoming (1996)
College Text Co-Author, Understanding Nutrition, West Publishing Co., Minneapolis, MN. (1991)
Syndicated newspaper nutrition columnist, Columbia Features, New York, NY (1984-1993)
Nutrition Instructor, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (1985-1986)
Wrote and taught course for Distance learning nutrition course, LSU, (1985)
Monthly magazine columnist on nutrition, Saturday Evening Post, (1984-1987)
Newsletter Editor, Target Corp. Baton Rouge, Louisiana (1983-1984)
Prepared and delivered TV Channel 6 News Weekly Nutrition Note, (1983-1984)
Cable TV cooking school instructor, Target Corp, (1983-1984)
Byerly’s Cooking School Instructor, French Cooking, Healthy Cooking (1982-1983)
Test Kitchen Manager, Recipes Unlimited, Burnsville MN (1981-1983)
Test Kitchen Intern, Amana Inc., Amana, Iowa (1981)


Farm produce to Table Gourmet in 20 Minutes. Fox News, Orlando, FL. 5/18.

Translating Nutritional Sciences for Patients – A Culinary Medicine Session, Resident Physicians Academic ½ Day, Orlando, FL 5/18.

Culinary Medicine-Three Food Truths, MedTalk at The Abby. Orlando, FL 6/18.

Probiotics and Gut Health, UCF Life. Orlando, FL 7/18.

Agricultural Produce as Culinary Medicine.  Skillet Creek Watershed Presentation.  Dayton, IA 8/18.

Probiotics and Gut Health, UCF Town and Gown. Orlando, FL 9/18.

Nutrition after 50-Culinary Medicine, Prime Education Series Studio 1847. Boca Raton, 9/18.

The Farmers Market Culinary Medicine-The Amazing Adventure Continues, Winter Garden, FL  10/18

A Really Simple way to Transform your Health, UCF Dean’s Society, Orlando, FL 12/2018


Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
American Diabetes Educators Association
Society of Judgment and Decision Making


Nyenhuis, J., (2019). Culinary Medicine Program Improves Physician Resident’s Nutrition Knowledge and Communication Skills. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 51, S126. Doi:

Nyenhuis, J., (2019). A qualitative study on the impact of informal culinary nutrition education on societal relationships, connectedness and food choices in rural home kitchens in seven states. Journal of Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 119.10: A140. Doi:

Nyenhuis, J. & Weaver Hightower, M. (October 2018). Nutrition Public Policy Preferences Influenced by Values and Beliefs, Food and Nutrition Conference and Expo, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Annual 2018 Conference, Washington DC.

Nyenhuis, J. (July 2018). Culinary Nutrition as a Nutrition Education Method for Increasing Acceptance of Evidence-Based Nutrition Science in the General Population, Florida Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Annual 2018 Conference, Orlando FL.

Nyenhuis, J., (2016). Political Ideology, beliefs and values as a framework for analysis of school nutrition preferences. The University of North Dakota, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. 10248613

Nyenhuis, J., & Drelich, J. (2015). Essential micronutrient biofortification of sprouts grown on mineral fortified fiber mats.  International Journal of Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering 9, 9.

Nyenhuis, J., &  Drelich, J. (2015). Essential micronutrient biofortification of sprouts grown on mineral-fortified fiber mats. Paper presented at International Conference of Nutrition and Food Science, Rome Italy. Conference proceedings 2,9, p. 648.

Nyenhuis, J., (2014) Analyzing uptake of micronutrients by micro-greens from novel mineral- fortified fiber mats: Case of copper. Poster Presentation FNCE, Atlanta, GA.

Nyenhuis, J., (2014).  Concept Mapping: Using Perceptions to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Individualized Medical Nutrition Therapy. Renal Nutrition Forum: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Practice . 33.

Nyenhuis, J., (2013) Concept Mapping Aids in Individualizing Medical Nutrition Therapy by Representing Perceptions of Participants. Poster Presentation Food and Nutrition Conference and Expo (FNCE) Houston, TX.

Nyenhuis, J., & Cokely, E. T. (2011) Diet and Exercise Rule Complexity. Poster Presentation at Annual Psychological Association, Seattle, WA.

Nyenhuis, J., Cokely, E.T., & Raisbeck L.D. (2011) Costs and Benefits of Simplifying Diet and Exercise Rule Complexity. Poster presented for the 83rd Annual meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago, IL.

Cataldo, C. , Nyenhuis, J., and Whitney, E. (1989) Understanding Nutrition, 2nd ed.West Publishing Co, St. Paul, MN. 704.

Gibbons, C.C., Nan singleton, N. & Nyenhuis, J. (1987) Effects of exercise on alcohol-fed rats. Biochemical Archives, 3, 23-29.

Nyenhuis, J., & Gibbons, C (1986) Effects of physical activity on selected minerals in the brain of ethanol-fed rats., Federation Proceedings, 1287.

Nyenhuis, J. Columbia Features Newspaper Syndicated Weekly Food Column
Wrote over 1000 columns published in newspapers throughout United States and Canada.
Nyenhuis, J. Cooking Light
Nyenhuis, J., Saturday Evening Post. Sept. Monthly Columnist

EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBER : Journal of Nutrition and Health Behavior


Wheat: A loaf of bread from field to table in 1/2 hour, Cavalier, ND
St Catherine Residence Halls Presentation on Healthy Eating, St Paul, MN
The National Milk Mustache “got milk?” guest dietitian at UP State Fair, Escanaba, MI
Bonifas Arts Center Cooking Instructor, Gourmet Grains, Gladstone, MI High School
Dietitian at Delta County Health Fair, Escanaba, MI
Nutrition Education Program, Gladstone, MI
Camp Bethel, Cook, Ranchester, WY
Malawi Africa Nutrition and Health Educator, Africa
Ray of Sunshine Foundation, Cooking Class as a Fundraiser, Marquette, MI
Covenant Point Retreat Cooking School Instructor, Cooking with Herbs Upper Peninsula, MI
Russian Radio Cooking Broadcast – Cooking With Jacque
Unakleet Bible Camp, Nutrition and Health, Alaska
Covenant Church Cooking Class, Gladstone, MI
Meadowlark School Nutrition Educator, Buffalo, WY



  • Culinary nutrition as a tool for teaching evidence-based nutrition to medical students, physician fellows, families and communities
  • Efficacy of lacto-bacillus degradation on gluten in sourdough products for consumption by celiac sprue patients
  • The impact of informal culinary nutrition education on societal relationships, connectedness and food choices in rural home kitchens.
  • Innovative curriculum for teaching nutrition in UCF COM hematology module.
  • Efficacy of culinary medicine to address the double burden of food insecurity and obesity while building connectedness and societal relationships in 5 countries.
  • Clinical trial looking at the efficacy of a plant-based dietary pattern to improve glycemic response, blood lipid panels and additional parametric measurements.